Since the nineties’ Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goal 2 (MDG 2) have put formal education on the agenda of governments, international organisations and donor agencies. Lots of efforts and means have been mobilised to ensure equal access for all to foremost primary education, but to secondary education as well. Large and impressive improvements on access have been achieved, including access for girls. But we also need to admit that the successful access-story has its serious drawbacks: in Uganda for instance, previously one of the so called “donor darlings”, enrolments have risen to even 94.5 %, but retention and completion rates are far from satisfactory, since drop-out in primary is as high as 48 %. Moreover, at the level of P6 many children cannot read, write and calculate properly (59 % on English, 54 % on numeracy). The same applies to many other countries throughout the world. We can hardly call this a successful development. Some even call it the collapse of the education system. Unfortunately and in many cases, high enrolments and easy measurable quick results appeared to be more important than effectiveness (read: quality), resulting into overcrowded classrooms and ill-prepared underpaid demotivated teachers.